Arctic Life of Birds and Mammals: Including Man by Laurence Irving (auth.)

By Laurence Irving (auth.)

After go back and forth via Alaska throughout the moment global struggle, in 1947 I went to Barrow with a truly full of life crew of biologists. From their effective study built the Arctic learn Laboratory. whereas we tested the fairly surpris­ ingly modest metabolic charges of arctic warmblooded animals in chilly, according to SCHO­ LANDER proposed after which performed measurements of metabolism of a few tropi­ cal animals in Panama. the diversities might be formulated to teach the foundation of version to arctic chilly and to tropical heat. mind's eye and good judgment have been required to formulate the comparability in order that it might develop into part of technology, however the crucial measurements have been derived from animals and crops of their personal arctic and tropical environments. features that adapt the types of existence to weather conditions of assorted environments look transparent within the huge dimensions of tremendous differing climates. on the time of my arrival in Alaska some of the arctic Eskimos have been nonetheless mostly depending on normal assets in their quick and native setting, during which nice seasonal alterations in temperature and sun radiation seemed as dominant components. The dwelling atmosphere on which they subsisted used to be additionally mar­ kedly suffering from the adjustments of the seasons, specifically by means of the switch in kingdom of water to ice that terminated summer season and by means of the melting that introduced the overdue transition from iciness to summer.

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Populations that could retreat before the ice and subsequendy return northward, and these form the bulk in numbers and kinds of residents of the Arctic, must have had plastic adaptability to meet latitudinal and temporal environmental changes. Could populations unexercised in encounter with cold by life in the climate of a southern retreat long preserve adaptability for the north to which they have returned? Evidendy some did. Speculating further afield, how did some forms of life in a long mild Tertiary climate prepare the flexibility required to meet the extreme fluctuations encountered during Pleistocene glacial and interglacial epochs?

The white-coated condition continues to prevail in the pups of gray seals breeding on shore, unlike the harbor seals of Bering Sea. White-coated Pups of Other Arctic Seals Only one of the six arctic seals named does not produce white-fur coated pups. The large bearded seal (Erignathus), which ranges into high-arctic ice, produces its large (33 kg), dark-coated pups exposed on ice, where they grow rapidly, molt and soon develop aquatic capability (BURNS, 1967). The other five species produce white-fur-coated young, with only the ringed seals sheltering their young in lairs protected by snow (McLAREN, 1958).

Stanford, Calif: Stanford University Press 1967. : The post-glacial history of vegetation and climate at Ennadai, Lake Keewatin, and Lynn Lake, Manitoba (Canada). Eiszeitalter und Gegenwart 18, 176-197 (1967). Piwi, T. : Permafrost and its Effect on Life in the North. Corvallis, Oregon: Oregon State University Press 1966. : Observations on the bioclimate of some taiga mammals. Arctic 10, 131-138 (1957). 21 Chapter 3 Mammals of the Arctic A dramatic event in the history of scientific exploration occurred in 1741 when STELLER, naturalist in Bering's exploration for lands east of Siberia, recognized a dark blue, crested jay (now Cyanocitta stellen) from Kayak Island, in the Gulf of Alaska, to be unlike Asiatic jays but like those of North America (STEJNEGER, 1936).

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