Analyses of Script: Properties of Characters and Writing by Gabriel Altmann, Fan Fengxiang (editors)

By Gabriel Altmann, Fan Fengxiang (editors)

This quantity offers 12 papers on a brand new method of the research of writing structures. For the 1st time, quantitative equipment are brought into this zone of study in a scientific means. the person contributions supply an summary approximately quantitative houses of symbols and of writing platforms, introduce tools of research, research person writing platforms as used for various languages, arrange an explanatory version of phenomena attached to script development/evolution, and provides a point of view to a normal concept of writing structures.

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25. There is no maximum of H0 because K is potentially infinite but its minimum is 0. The greater H0 , the more diversified the phoneme representation. The results for all phonemes are presented in the second and third column of Table 2. It can be seen easily that vowels have more diversified representations than consonants, though some of them are weakly diversified (/AE/, /AW/, /OY/). Under other conditions of sampling and interpretation, one would get another picture, but any version is merely an approximation because of the diversity of English.

The earlier the letter appears in the cluster the more it contributes to its phonetic value. At least this can be assumed to hold in general (although it does not hold in each case). g. → /parl/. Let us illustrate the problem using the graphemes containing , namely < cq, cqu, q, qu, que > . Let nq be the set of graphemes containing and |n | the cardinal number of this set. Let wx be the weight of the letter given by its position in the grapheme. We define first PP = ∑ (13) wx x∈n as the sum of all weights (positions) of in the graphemes of the set nx .

It can be polyphonemic. e. we compute the weighted participation of letters. The results are presented in Table 7. Again, the number of cases is too small (26) and, since almost all letters have different participation, no model could be set up. Hence we use, as above, the ranked weighted participation and as expected we obtain again the 1-displaced negative hypergeometric distribution. The result of fitting is graphically displayed in Figure 5. 200 190 180 170 160 150 140 130 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 f(x) NP(x) 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 Figure 5: Ranked weighted participation of letters in graphemes (NHG) 26 Graphemic representation of English phonemes 8 41 Letter utility The last aspect we shall analyze here is the so-called letter utility.

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