By Kenneth Pye
It is greater than part a century because the booklet of R. A. Bagnold’s vintage e-book The physics of blown sand and wasteland dunes, and it's a tribute to the standard of Bagnold’s paintings that some of the primary ideas which he built - major legitimate this present day. His booklet remains to be crucial studying for any severe s- dent of aeolian procedures. even though, the earlier twenty years have noticeable an explosion within the scale of study facing aeolian delivery techniques, sediments, and landforms. a few of this paintings has been summarized in overview papers and edited convention complaints, yet this booklet presents the rst try to assessment the full eld of aeolian sand learn. necessarily, it has now not been attainable to hide all - pects in equivalent intensity, and the stability of incorporated fabric evidently re ects the - thors’ personal pursuits to a signi cant measure. in spite of the fact that, our target has been to supply as extensive a viewpoint as attainable, and to supply an access element to an intensive mul- disciplinary scienti c literature, a few of which has now not been given the eye it merits in past textbooks and assessment papers. Many examples are drawn from current released paintings, however the booklet additionally makes vast use of our personal examine within the center East, Australia, Europe, and North the USA. The e-book has been written largely to be used through complex undergraduates, po- graduates, and extra senior examine staff in geomorphology and sedimentology.
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Extra resources for Aeolian Sand and Sand Dunes
The climate of these deserts is mild to warm in winter and hot to very hot in summer. The middle latitude deserts are found mainly in Central Asia and are cold in winter but warm to hot in summer. The wind climate of the Sahara desert, which provides a typical example of a hot subtropical desert, is dominated by the existence of a high-pressure cell across the region (Fig. 3). 3 Storm Types that Generate Sand-Transporting Winds 27 summer. As noted previously (Sect. 1), the centre of the anticyclonic belt is characterized by relatively stable air.
3 Dust Devils The daytime near-surface air instability characteristic of bare ground in deserts leads to the development of miniature whirlwinds known as dust devils (Fig. 7). This type of whirlwind generally raises a column of dust 1–300 m in diameter up to heights of 3–300 m, but some cases of gigantic dust devils attaining heights of up to 4000 m have been reported (Jutson 1920, Sinclair 1964). Dust devils develop over reasonably level ground when there is strong thermal convection through the superadiabatic layer near the ground.
On the other hand, the long, narrow downstream shape would increase the skin friction drag so that the total drag would still be very high. 22 shows that a tapering body, whose width to length ratio is 1:4, has the minimum total drag. This form, known as a streamlined body, is almost devoid of separation. All other bodies which induce Fig. 22 Variation in the coefficient of pressure drag, skin friction drag, and total drag as a function of thickness ratio of a streamlined body. (Adapted from Goldstein 1938, p.