By Jacques Yves Guigné, Philippe Blondel
Offshore drilling and structures require specified wisdom of the geophysical houses of the seabed and sub-seabed, as unforeseen items can decelerate or halt initiatives. This ebook provides the state of the art in acoustic exploration of the seabed and sub-seabed, from preliminary designs within the Eighties to advertisement contracting and operation of the Acoustic Corer™ within the final decade. The Acoustic Corer™ is a high-definition advertisement acoustic sub-bottom imaging procedure, generating an “acoustic middle” during which sub-seabed sedimentary features and discrete buried gadgets better than half m could be pointed out and mapped. It uses the cutting edge JYG-cross layout, encouraged through seismic mirrored image and makes use of artificial Aperture Sonar (SAS) multi-angle scattering in and in the seabed to bring unparalleled imagery. This ebook was once written by means of the inventor of those innovations, a recognized expert in seabed acoustics, with aid from an skilled educational and writer. it truly is meant initially as a “how-to” advisor for offshore industries innovations to make the set up of other kinds of buildings secure and efficient.
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Additional info for Acoustic Investigation of Complex Seabeds
Sweeps are generated along the red line (using the sources on the acoustic package from one boom) and receivers are stationed along the green line (by moving the acoustic package from the other boom). Choosing to offset their respective positions by 10 cm yields close to 5800 traces for each JYG-Cross position employed. Pre-stack migration is generally employed upfront along the regularly distributed Common Mid Points, where each trace is assigned to its closest midpoint bin and the trace headers (metadata) are updated to contain the CMP spatial location information.
The solutions chosen are part of a rich ﬁeld of possible approaches, detailed inter alia in Blondel (2009) and Montereale Gavazzi et al. (2016), but not discussed here for the sake of brevity. The physical and geological characteristics modulating acoustic returns from the seabed are now pretty well understood, depending on the frequencies used and the imaging mode (monostatic, where the same platform is used to transmit sound and measure its backscatter along the same line of sight, as opposed to multi-angle, or multistatic, where the sound source and receivers are physically decoupled).
4 Data Processing—Coherent Summation and Flow Diagram 45 Fig. 14 Close-up view of the moving instrumentation platform. It contains three sets of transmitters: low-frequency (LF), high-frequency (HF) and parametric, and one hydrophone array. This platform will move along the boom during operation, and as the boom rotates, cover the entire 360° of a circle 12 m in diameter. Image source: PanGeo Subsea Inc. 15 shows a striking, but typical, example of the Acoustic Corer data after processing. g. from sand to gravel or rock).