By Heath, Jeffrey
Jamsay is the largest-population language between a few twenty Dogon languages in Mali, West Africa. this can be the 1st finished grammar of any Dogon language, together with an entire tonology. The language is verb-final, with topic contract at the verb and with out different case-marking. Its such a lot extraordinary characteristic is the morphosyntactically prompted use of stem-wide tone-contour overlays on nouns, verbs, and adjectives. All stems have a lexical tone contour equivalent to H[igh], L[ow]-H, HL, or LHL with not less than one H-tone. An examination of tone overlay is tone-dropping to stem-wide all-L. this is often used for Perfective verbs (in the presence of a focalized constituent), and for a noun or adjective sooner than an adjective. it's also used to mark the pinnacle NP in a relative clause (the head NP isn't extracted, so this can be the one direct indication of head NP status). The verb in a relative clause is morphologically a participle, agreeing with the pinnacle NP in humanness and quantity, instead of with the topic. ""Intonation"" is used grammatically. for instance, NP conjunction 'X and Y' is expressed as X Y, and not using a conjunction, yet with ""dying-quail"" intonation on either conjuncts.
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Extra info for A Grammar of Jamsay (Mouton Grammar Library)
3. c-d). b). (3) a. ’ b. ’ c. ’ d. c-d) suggest, the verbal suffixal system marks aspect as well as negation; I refer to these as AN (aspect-negation) categories. 2. The division between the two systems is justified by semantics and textual patterning. For example, the unsuffixed Perfective (in the syntactic contexts that require it) may correspond to any of several marked perfectivesystem categories in other contexts, and the unsuffixed Imperfective is likewise the unmarked, all-purpose imperfective-system form.
Nonpronominal subject NP (maximally: possessor, noun, adjectives, numeral) 3. dative, object, adverbials (with pronominals last) 4. L-toned pronominal subject proclitic (in nonsubject relatives, if subject is pronominal) 5. verb with Participial suffix agreeing in nominal features with head noun (HumSg, HumPl, Nonh) 6. NP-final elements (Definite, Plural, demonstrative, ‘all’, ‘each’) Examples involving two or three pronominals, which show rigid dativeobject-subject order, are in (21). (21) a. Nonh ‘the day (when) I saw you-Sg’ b.
Falling” and “rising” tones), each tone component requires at least one mora (=timing unit) of its own. e. timing units of the nucleus. Syllabic structure is derivable from segment strings within words. Syllables are of the types in (27) in initial, medial, and final position. 26 (27) Phonology a. Cv monomoraic (=light) b. CvC Cv˘ bimoraic (=heavy) c. 1, below. Word-initial syllables may be of the shapes in (27), and may also occur without the initial C, hence v, vC, v˘, v˘C, v˘˘. In native Dogon vocabulary, there are no word-initial consonant sequences.